The advantages that the rooftop rainwater harvesting system has as a source of water supply have been examined. The observed daily rainfall records of 10 years and the current total roof area of the facilities at Mbeya University of Science and Technology as the catchment area were used. Using a water balance model to determine the suitable water use that will cover 100% of the time, the model indicated that for the current roof area a water supply of 120 lts?per day can be met when a storage tank whose capacity is 13.5 m3 is installed. When values higher that 120 l/day are simulated a tank of higher capacity is required to meet the water demand. The study recommends on the necessity of installing rooftop rainwater harvesting system so as to increase the water supply reliability and reduction of cost. The selection of a suitable storage tank capacity should take into consideration the future development plans so as to reduce the construction cost of new storage tank.
The chronological development of universities
ranges from the state at which universities are considered to be
knowledge accumulators followed by knowledge factories and finally the
knowledge hubs. The various national systems of innovations are aligned with
the knowledge hubs and it involves a substantial amount of research activities. The newly
established Mbeya University of Science and Technology is recognised as a knowledge hub in some particular niches. However, there are a limited number of
research activities conducted at the university and this
study is an attempt to identify the reasons that limit research activities.
Well-structured research questionnaires were designed and distributed to
academic staff members and thereafter the respondents were analysed by using SPSS software package. The lack of knowledge,
skills and funds as well as equipment was earmarked as the
reason that hindered the research activities. Therefore,
resources are required to improve the capabilities of the staff members and the
study recommends on the need for deliberate efforts to improve the
knowledge of the staff members with respect to research
The response by the government of Tanzania to food security and poverty alleviation in the Naming’ongo area in Mbozi District has been to develop Naming’ongo irrigation scheme as well as construct a bridge across River Nkana to connect the farms and other parts of the district to facilitate a reliable transportation of the produce to the market. The Australian Water Balance Model that was calibrated by using 10 years data from a nearby sub-catchment of Mbarali. The Naming’ongo Sub-catchment was delineated form a 30 m digital elevation model. The observed rainfall was obtained from Mbozi Meteorological station. The study approximated the peak flows in River Nkana for a return period of 50 years to be slightly above 560 m3/s. This was considered to be adequate for the proposed structure. The study recommends that when undertaking human activities such as deforestation and cultivation an account for soil and environmental conservation should be considered. While it is necessary to establish a monitoring system within the catchment, the designs of future hydraulic structures should incorporate stream flow measuring facilities.
This paper addresses the syngas production
and evaluation losses in high temperature gasification process using coffee
husks. A fast and inexpensive way to evaluate the losses in gasification
processes is by the application mathematical models which allow to predict the
values needed in full scale. Hence, the quantification of gasifier’s losses at
temperatures ranges of 800 K - 1400 K at an equivalence ratios of 0.3, 0.35 and
0.4 at 1 bar are revealed by using exergy model incorporating a chemical
equilibrium model. The model evaluated the product syngas compositions, syngas
heating values and degree of irreversibility values (losses). The results from
the model showed that the production of H2 increased from 9.9% to 18.9% and the
formation of CO2 ranges from 7.2% to 12.3%. CO production is from 21.8% to
17.2%. The irreversibility values obtained were less than 27%. Hence, reduction
of losses protracts biomass resources to be used in energy generation.