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OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721

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Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate(VI)  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105946
Abstract:
Disinfection, chemical oxidation, and coagulation are key methods in water treatment. A chemical that may be used for all these targets is ferrate(VI). This work tries to bring some light into mechanisms implied throughout killing microbes using ferrate(VI). In acidic pH, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI) is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. The technology of using ferrate(VI) for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Ferrate(VI) allows a novel emergency water treatment design for disaster-affected populations through the repercussions of natural disasters, through the concurrent and efficient elimination of microbial and chemical pollutants. The ferrates’ elevated performance and utilization as a green element for water treatment propose that these techniques remain greatly convenient for usage as pre- or post-treatment in traditional wastewater plants. It seems that there is no big difference in terms of ferrate’s action on pathogens with other chemical disinfectants. However, ferrate was found to be requiring lower needed doses as compared with other chemicals. More researches on disinfection by-products formation following ferrate injection as a disinfectant are required. Finally, ferrate(VI) deserves more attention to be used more largely through worldwide wastewater treatment plants.
Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plant to Obtain Drinking Water  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105959
Abstract:
With a growing population and expansion, societies worldwide brave lack water for drinking supply. Undeveloped sources of water should be specified to diminish such issues. Direct potable reuse is a supply-side procedure that can enhance the sustainability and reliability of water supplies via recuperating potable water from wastewater. This work assesses the perspective of upgrading the wastewater treatment plants to obtain potable water. Treating wastewater at the highest level of purity to guarantee the drinking water supply is the best approach to avoid the pollution expansion from wastewater even if it is partially treated to minimize its toxic impacts and provide water for irrigation and industrial use purposes. Treating wastewater at present in the actual wastewater treatment plants should be urgently upgraded to provide potable water through adding processes steps such as nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption on activated carbon. Evidently, there is an additional cost for these sophisticated techniques to pay for the better future of the humankind. Finally, from the authors’ point of view, treating wastewater must be continuously improved by using more and more developed techniques and consuming directly treated wastewater as potable water must be only considered as the final issue in the case of hard shortage situations for security reasons.
Water Reuse: Emerging Contaminants Elimination—Progress and Trends  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105981
Abstract:
This work concentrates on the review paper published by Ahmed et al. [1] which is dedicated to the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs) using biological, chemical and hybrid techniques in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) are better reduced by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), activated sludge, and aeration processes between various biological processes. Surfactants, EDCs and personal care products (PCPs) may be well reduced using activated sludge processes. Pesticides and pharmaceuticals manifested convenient reduction performances by biological activated carbon. Microalgae treatment techniques may diminish nearly all sorts of ECs to a certain degree. Additional biological methods were observed less efficient in dealing with ECs. Chemical oxidation techniques (like ozonation/H2O2, UV photolysis/H2O2, and photo-Fenton) may greatly eliminate up to 100% of pesticides, beta-blockers, and pharmaceuticals; at the same time, EDCs may be better reduced via ozonation and UV photocatalysis. Fenton method was observed less efficient in treating any sorts of ECs. A merged setup founded on ozonation pursued by biological activated carbon was manifested hugely efficacious in eliminating pesticides, beta-blockers, and pharmaceuticals. An integrated ozonation-ultrasound device may eliminate until 100% of numerous pharmaceuticals. Next research orientations to boost the elimination of ECs have been suggested.
Electrochemical Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106020
Abstract:
For treating wastewater, electrochemical engineering has been rediscovered during the last four decades through the world for its inherent advantages comparatively with traditional technologies especially the chemical and biological techniques. However, the expansion of this technology founded on electric current applying has been retarded by several technical-economic factors especially the detection of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. This work focuses on the challenges and future tendencies for this highly-efficient technology to reach the full-scale implementations particularly in disinfecting water. Lately, new versions of electrochemical techniques have been suggested such as employing sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) and sunlight to generate .OH radicals in TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton water treatment. These improvements elevated the electrochemical engineering efficiency and acceptation. However, more efforts remain to be accomplished for water reuse vision. Future researches would focus on integrating membranes processes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for a safe removal of DBPs.
Magnetic Field Application: An Underappreciated Outstanding Technology  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106000
Abstract:
In diverse machines, as much as 90% of all particles suspended in the oil can be iron or steel and can be particularly troublesome to operators. This article looks at magnetic filtration advantages and benefits; moreover, it focuses on how this physical technology can often outperform traditional methods. Mag-netic filtration is a process in which two objects are separated; one of them has to be metallic, to be attracted by means of magnets. Magnetic systems ideal for the food industry, as they protect the final product and the machinery used in its production process. Another important magnetic field application is in the water treatment technology. Despite the great achievements in the application of the magnetic field through the above-mentioned domains, more efforts should be performed to promote this green technology implementation in the industries in terms of practical usage. More attention has to be accorded by re-searchers to better familiarize industrials with this hugely promising technique.
Removing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (ARB) Carrying Genes (ARGs): Challenges and Future Trends  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106003
Abstract:
Developed control of chemical disinfection techniques is beginning to be pro-gressively significant in order to equilibrate under-treatment (minimal pathogen demobilization) and over-treatment (immoderate consumption of disinfectant and disinfection by-products generation) that way giving great ecological and economic advantages. This work reviews the most recent and pertinent re-searches in this field of eliminating Antibiotic-resistant Bacteria (ARB) carrying genes (ARGs) during wastewater treatment especially disinfection. Traditional disinfection techniques may not be efficient in demobilizing ARB and the simultaneous liberation of ARB and antibiotics at sub-lethal concentrations into municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent may promote the develop-ment of resistance among bacteria in receiving water. The pathway of the in-fluences of diverse disinfection techniques in water and wastewater (chlorina-tion, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation) deserves more attention. The impacts of constructed wetlands and nanotech-nology on ARB and ARG have to be more explored. As the best available technology, membranes processes should be widely adopted through the world for removing ARB and ARGs from the perspective of reusing treated wastewater as drinking water. These safe barriers against pollutants diffusion in nature merit more technical and economic expansion for their larger industrial application especially in developing countries.
Is Not It Time to Stop Using Chlorine for Treating Water?  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106007
Abstract:
Chlorine is largely used as a disinfectant in the water and wastewater treatment industries through the world despite the fact that is greatly poisonous for hu-man beings. Its toxicity is more extended to generating disinfection by-products during its microorganisms’ killing and action on organic matter present in water. More importantly, recent studies proved the potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), particularly for free-living ARGs in final disinfected effluent of urban wastewater treatment plants. Indeed, Escherichia coli concentration prior to chlorination depicted a powerful positive correlation with the extracellular ARGs plenty in the final effluents; however, lower temperature and higher ammonium concentration were suggested to relate with intracellular ARGs. Chlorination could elevate the plenty of ARGs, therefore, inducing danger of the diffusion of antibiotic resistance in nature. Consequently, chlorine toxicity is more and more proved, which appeals its urgent stopping from using it in the treatment of both water and wastewater. The same conclusion was also obtained at least for UV and UV/H2O2 disinfection. Chemical disinfection should be urgently avoided or at least deeply revised. For removing pathogens and treating water, safe multi-barrier methods, such as distillation and membrane processes, have to be adopted.
Strategies for Reducing Disinfection By-Products Formation during Electrocoagulation  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106076
Abstract:
During the last three decades, the electrocoagulation (EC) process has known an exemplary renaissance in the field of water and wastewater treatment. Sev-eral researchers focused on applying this electrochemical technology in re-moving diverse pollutants such as pathogens and organic matters. During EC application, the hazards of formation of highly toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) are more and more proved especially in water containing organic mat-ter and halogens especially chloride. This work presents a brief view on the questions related to such issues and challenges. Great efforts remain to be ac-complished towards the comprehension of the inherent phenomena related to removing both microorganisms and organic matters in the EC method. Using granular activated carbon post-treatment could hugely diminish the levels and toxicity of DBPs. Further, safe multi-barrier methods, such as distillation and membrane processes, have to be adopted.
Electrocoagulation Process in the Context of Disinfection Mechanism  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106083
Abstract:
During the last three decades, the electrocoagulation (EC) process has known an exemplary renaissance in the field of water and wastewater treatment. Sev-eral researchers focused on applying this electrochemical technology in re-moving diverse pollutants such as pathogens. During EC method, the coagulant is furnished via solubilizing sacrificial electrodes upon an applied electric field. The easiness of the technology and the side phenomena involving the generation of gas bubbles are the major advantages. This work discusses briefly the main achievements and mechanisms in employing EC in disinfecting water. In the EC process, the microbes may be demobilized thanks to the direct adsorption on the surface of the anode pursued by electron transfer, and physical elimination through floating pathogens with formed hydrogen gas and/or precipitating with the produced flocs. Integrating EC with free radical assisted processes (e.g., electrooxidation), magnetic field and/or ultrasonic field remains an encouraging method to promote its implantation at full scale. Membrane processes should be considered as safe barriers towards disinfection by-products and hydroxyl radicals.
An Insight in Electrocoagulation Process through Current Density Distribution (CDD)  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106142
Abstract:
Electrocoagulation (EC) is a flourishing technique in the field of water treatment implementations. Numerous investigations have been performed to assess the performance of EC to eliminate different pollutants; however, the more basic electrochemical features of the technique are usually ignored. Scientists such as McBeath et al. [1] provided an understanding of the essential link of water flow, electrochemical metal dissolution, and current density distribution (CDD) via computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, mathematical models, and in situ CDD determination tests. They established, in theory, that current distributed over the electrode was inversely proportional to the water flow rate. By means of the CFD models and current distribution determining technique, they noted that current density was distributed unequally and pursued the tendency anticipated via theory. Eliminating natural organic matter was decreased as much as 79% when the inter-electrode distance was diminished from 10 to 1 mm. As a perspective, more efforts are required to better understand the CDD at the anodes surface and electric charges transfer from electrodes to the bulk of the solution. Mechanisms related to interactions of anodic metallic cations and various pollutants should be more investigated.
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