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Comparative Evaluation of Some Physicochemical Properties on Selected Commercially Available Soaps on the Zambian Market  [PDF]
Christopher Mwanza, Kadango Zombe
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106147
Abstract: The Zambian market has witnessed an impressive upsurge in the production and consumption of a variety of soaps in recent years. However, there is scant, if any, knowledge of the quality and safety of these soaps. In this undertaking, the quality of some selected soaps was evaluated. The soap samples were randomly obtained from various supermarkets. The qualities of soaps were assessed based on the following physicochemical parameters: free caustic alkali (FCA), moisture content (MC), total fatty matter (TFM), pH and total alkali content (TAC). Upon analysis, a variation in these physicochemical properties was observed. Percent MC ranged between 6.70% ± 0.06% and 18.13% ± 0.13%. Solo and Yebo recorded the highest MC. The pH values ranged from 10.70 ± 0.02 to 12.23% ± 0.01%. Yet again, Yebo had the highest pH followed by Solo and then Romeo. The TAC was between 2.00% ± 0.06% to 2.40% ± 0.01% and FCA values were from 0.00 to 0.021% ± 0.00%. Romeo had the highest TAC value (2.40% ± 0.01%) followed by Dettol (2.31% ± 0.05%). Only Solo and Yebo showed some traces of FCA. On the other hand, TFM values ranged from 51.60% ± 0.60% to 78.15% ± 1.66%. Romeo recorded the highest TFM value (78.15% ± 1.66%) and Yebo recorded the lowest (51.60% ± 0.60%). On average, most soaps analysed herein were of fairly acceptable quality and are fit for use.
Sickrole Compliance and Sickrole Deviance among Tuberculosis Patients on Treatment in Kanyama, a Zambian Shanty Compound  [PDF]
Jason Mwanza
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.61001
Abstract: Background: Kanyama compound has had a DOTS community based programme since 2012 where TB supporters in the community have been fostering the DOTS programme. Prior to this study, research had not been done using Parsonian sickrole behaviour concept to determine the pattern of deviance especially the sickrole behavioural responses on the part of people who were on TB treatment. Methods: This was an exploratory study and the study sample was drawn from a large mixed methods study (quan + QUAL) comprising of 457 men and women ≥15 years. Enrolees were disproportionately sampled using systematic sampling from a population of 1126 men and women who were on multi drug therapy over a two-year period. Categorical and numeric data from the tool was cleaned and analyzed by using SPSS version 21 (Inc., Chicago, USA). Statistical analysis was done using Pearson’s Chi square test and ANOVA. A p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: 18.5% of the enrolees honoured medical appointments when due whereas 81.5% did not. There was a significant association p < 0.05 with case type and marital status. 39.6% of the enrolees honoured the medical regimen by taking the prescribed drugs, 33.3% failed to honour and 27.1% were not sure. There was a significant association p < 0.05 between case type and marital status. Conclusions: Strengthening DOTS programs at community level through volunteers to enhance patient adherence to TB treatment and giving personalised attention to men and women who may be at risk of developing secondary tuberculosis, or risk for drug resistance and even dying is recommended. There is evidence to laud the great effort being expended by volunteer community based tuberculosis supporters in ensuring that what DOTS stands for is met.
Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Zambia: Advancing Tourism Planning and Natural Resource Management in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) Area  [PDF]
Binyi Liu, Floyd M. Mwanza
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2014.71004
Abstract:

Over the last few decades, development policy has been dominated by mainstream economic theories that focus on economic growth to achieve sustainable development. The pace and scale of tourism growth in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) area in Zambia have seen over reliance on natural resource utilisation by mass tourism developments. Compounded by insufficient planning and limited co-ordination and collaboration among the institutions involved in the tourism sector, tourism can have a negative impact and can create conflicts. Tourism growth in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) has predominantly focused on the economic incentives in tourism and ignored the social perspective and impact on the local population. In general, the government agency administration structures affect the successful implementation of tourism policy and planning for sustainable tourism development. Given the fact that the limited government support, funds and appropriate knowledge in tourism limit Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) to develop as a sustainable “green” destination and remain an enormously difficult task to achieve.

Social Integration in Public Spaces & Landscapes: Perceptions and Experiences towards Multicultural Shanghai  [PDF]
Liu Binyi, Floyd M. Mwanza
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2014.31004
Abstract: Multiculturalism in today’s globalised economies has become a hot topic. This research seeks to document the differing experiences of non-Chinese and Chinese to public spaces and landscapes, focusing on the factors influencing the involvement of non-Chinese people in public spaces and landscapes. The study seeks to ascertain whether particular public spaces have social significance in the integration of non-Chinese people in Shanghai, China, and whether there is a need to develop a policy in relation to strategies for social integration in the now thriving multicultural Shanghai communities. Multiculturalism and Urbanism for future cities can be the basis on which a problem statement(s) can be developed for further research. Multicultural social integration is about recognising diversity and indifferences. People from different cultural backgrounds may value the public space landscape quite differently to natives. Social integration allows cultural richness to open hearts and minds to different ways of seeing and experiencing public parks and landscapes. It can tell us something about the ways in which people adapt their traditions to different circumstances in a new country. It is the hope of this research that a series of studies on “Multiculturalism and Social Integration and Landscape in Asian Cities” will be done.
唾液及頭發中內源性大麻素的高效液相色譜-串聯質譜檢測
Detection of endocannabinoids in saliva and hair by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

陳盛火,張權,Mwanza Christopher,吳彥,段彩靈,鄧慧華
- , 2017, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-0505.2017.03.020
Abstract: 基于高效液相色譜-串聯質譜儀建立了檢測唾液和頭發中花生四烯酸乙醇氨(AEA)和2-花生四烯酸甘油(2-AG)含量的方法,并用于檢測157名在校大學生唾液和頭發中的AEA和2-AG,探討AEA和2-AG對性別和肥胖的影響.唾液中的待測物采用乙酸乙酯液液萃取提純;頭發中的待測物經甲醇孵育,用固相萃取柱萃取提純.在大氣壓化學電離正離子模式和多反應監測方式下進行定性測試,以外標法進行定量測試.方法驗證結果顯示,唾液AEA,2-AG檢測限分別為0.07和0.40 ng/mL;頭發AEA,2-AG檢測限分別為0.7和3.2 pg/mg;日內、日間變異系數均小于15%,回收率為97.9%~108.0%.人群研究結果表明,肥胖者唾液和頭發AEA,2-AG含量均顯著高于非肥胖者(p<0.010);男性唾液2-AG含量顯著低于女性(p<0.050),但AEA含量沒有性別差異(p=0.844);男性頭發2-AG含量顯著高于女性(p<0.010),但AEA含量沒有性別差異(p=0.456).
A new method based on high performance-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed for quantification of N-arachidonoyl-ethanolamine(AEA)and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol(2-AG)in saliva and hair. This method was used for 157 healthy undergraduate students to explore the influences of gender and obesity on the contents of AEA and 2-AG. The analysts in saliva were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and those in hair were purified by solid phase extraction with methanol. The qualitative tests were carried out with atmosphere pressure chemical ionization in the positive mode and multiple reaction monitoring, while the quantitative tests were performed with the external standard method. The method validation results reveal that the detection limits for saliva AEA and 2-AG are 0.07 and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively, and those for hair AEA and 2-AG are 0.7 and 3.2 pg/mg, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation are less than 15% and the recovery ranges from 97.9% to 108.0%. The population analysis results show that the contents of AEA and 2-AG of salivary and hair of the obese individuals are significantly than those of the non-obese ones(p<0.010). The contents of saliva 2-AG of males are obviously lower than those of females(p<0.050), but no gender difference in AEA content is observed(p=0.844). The contents of hair 2-AG of males are obviously higher than those of females(p<0.01), but there is no significant gender difference in hair AEA(p=0.456)
Evangelisation á Kinshasa: une strategie d'exploitation ou l'expression d'une foi ardente?
Gauthier M Mwanza
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie , 2004,
Abstract:
Reducing Efficiencies of the Commonly Used Heat Treatment Methods and Fermentation Processes on Aflatoxin M1 in Naturally Contaminated Fresh Cow Milk  [PDF]
G. K. Omeiza, M. Mwanza, S. I. Enem, E. Godwin, M. A. Adeiza, C. Okoli
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.88013
Abstract: The reducing efficiencies of the commonly used heat treatment methods and fermentation processes on aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Nigeria were investigated. Seventy samples of fresh cow milk from both conventional and traditional dairy cattle herds were collected and analyzed for the determination of AFM1 using Cobra-cell incorporated high performance liquid chromatography. Of these analyzed samples, 56 (80.0%) tested positive for AFM1 out of which 3 milk samples with high AFM1 concentrations were selectively pooled and subjected to varied conditions of heat treatments and fermentation processes using both indigenized and exotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus + Streptococcus thermophilus and L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum) as starter cultures respectively. Both processes used either singly or combined, demonstrated high degrees of reducing effects on AFM1 levels. Sterilization of the milk at 121?C and 80?C under the same condition of time (15 - 20) min showed significant reduction of up to 58.8% (p < 0.05) when compared with the fresh untreated cow milk of the same source. Application of heat treatments within the acceptable pasteurization conditions of 61?C for 15 - 20 min showed no significant reduction (p > 0.05) in the level of AFM1 when compared with the initial mean AFM1 concentration of the untreated fresh milk. The situation was however different around the boiling temperature of 100?C at which point the level of AFM1 reduction was found to be inconsistent. The indigenized combined strains showed some slight margins of AFM1 reduction in the proportions of (20.5, 30.8 and 43.9)% over and above that of the exotic strains (17.4, 30.0 and 41.1)% in 12 h, 48 h and 72 h of fermentation respectively. Generally, fermentation alone showed lower reduction of AFM1 in milk from 24.5% to 43.9% compared with the reducing activities of (35.4 to 58.8)% when heat-treated milk samples were subsequently subjected to varied fermentation conditions.
Effect of ACTH and CRH on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite in Cycling Gilts and Castrated Boars
A Madej, AM Mwanza, H Kindahl, S Einarsson
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-46-249
Abstract: Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) plays a central role in regulating the release of adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) during a stress response. ACTH acts on the adrenal glands, inducing the secretion of cortisol. In our previous study, we reported that ACTH administration to ovariectomized gilts results in the plasma elevation of cortisol, progesterone and prostaglandin F2α metabolite [15]. How ACTH is capable of stimulating the secretion of PGF2α metabolite remains unanswered. However, it was previously suggested by [8] that ACTH enhances the conversion in vitro of 3H-arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in feline adrenocortical cells. The findings of [2] indicate that prostaglandins in the brain interact in their stimulatory regulation of ACTH secretion. Such an interaction may also be involved in prostaglandins mediation of the ACTH response to immunochallenges. [1] reported that stimulation of porcine pituitary cells by relatively low concentrations of prostaglandin E2 support increased secretion of ACTH but exposure to greater concentrations of this prostaglandin in fact suppresses ACTH secretion. Food deprivation, which is a form of stress, has been shown to result in the plasma elevation of both cortisol and PGF2α metabolite [24,11,14,17].Intracerebroventricular as well as intravenous injections of CRH resulted in an increased plasma cortisol concentration in pigs [20,7]. Previously, it was suggested that CRH may also act directly or indirectly to enhance cortisol secretion beyond the level achieved through adrenal stimulation by ACTH [12].The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of synthetic ACTH (tetra-cosactid) and porcine CRH on the plasma levels of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in cycling gilts and castrated boars.Six crossbred pigs (Landrace × Yorkshire; three gilts and three castrated boars) aged approximately 6 months weighing between 110 and 125 kg were used for this experiment. The pigs were brought to the Division of Com
Effect of ACTH and CRH on Plasma Levels of Cortisol and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite in Cycling Gilts and Castrated Boars
Madej A,Mwanza AM,Kindahl H,Einarsson S
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-46-4-249
Abstract: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of synthetic ACTH (1–24, tetracosactid) and porcine CRH on the plasma levels of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite in cycling gilts (n = 3) and castrated boars (n = 3). The experiments were designed as crossover studies for each gender separately. Each animal received, during three consecutive days; 1) ACTH (Synacthen Depot) at a dose of 10 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline, 2) porcine CRH at a dose 0.6 μg/kg body weight in 5 ml physiological saline or 3) physiological saline (5 ml). The test substances were administered via an indwelling jugular cannula in randomized order according to a Latin square. The administration of ACTH to cycling gilts resulted in concomitant elevations of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 70.0 ± 10.0 and 33.3 ± 6.7 min, respectively. Similarly, the administration of ACTH to castrated boars resulted in concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite with peak levels reached at 60.0 ± 0.0 and 20.0 ± 0.0 min, respectively. Cortisol peaked at 20 min after administration of CRH in both cycling gilts and castrated boars with maximum levels of 149.3 ± 16.5 nmol/1 and 138.3 ± 10.1 nmol/1, respectively. It can be concluded that administration of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactid) to pigs caused a concomitant elevation of cortisol and PGF2α metabolite levels in both cycling gilts as well as castrated boars. The administration of CRH to pigs resulted in an elevation of cortisol levels in both cycling gilts and castrated boars. Conversely, PGF2α metabolite levels were not influenced by the administration of CRH either in cycling gilts or in castrated boars.
Authors′ reply
Mwanza Jean-Claude,Ngweme Georgette,Kayembe David
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2007,
Abstract:
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