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OALib Journal期刊

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The Best Available Technology of Water/Wastewater Treatment and Seawater Desalination: Simulation of the Open Sky Seawater Distillation  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2013.32012
Abstract: This review suggests the concept of the best available technology of water/wastewater treatment and seawater desalination which is in fact a simulation of the seawater distillation at the open sky: coagulation in salty water aerated basin/ coagulation using seawater as coagulant solution with distillation using stored solar energy followed by waterfall on a natural mountain. This natural, green, and technico-economical technology is composed of three steps: the first one is coagulation which may be achieved: 1) in salty water aerated basin (air stripping, AS; dissolved air flotation, DAF) where the raw water is diluted in seawater; or 2) in conventional coagulation using seawater as coagulant solution instead of alum/ferric salts. The first option seems to be more natural as it simulates river water dilution in seawater and the second one is more practical for rapid water consummation. For colloids and microorganisms’ removal, double-layer compression and charge neutralisation, as main coagulation and disinfection mechanisms, would be involved in the first and second options, respectively. Aerated basin (AS/DAF) reproduces the natural aeration to simulate healthy natural water basin. Using stored solar energy, distillation as the best liquid-solid/liquid-liquid separation process provides the removal of dissolved pollutants. For well balanced calco-carbonic equilibrium, the last step of this green treatment is the waterfall on a natural mountain providing useful gases, dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, and mineral salts to the water.
On the Treatment Trains for Municipal Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106088
Abstract:
Traditional urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTPs) are badly efficient in eliminating most contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), comprising antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARB & ARGs). Such pollutants induce some worry for nature and human health, especially if UWTPs effluents are reused for crop irrigation. In all probability, traditional UWTPs will need extra advanced treatment stages to satisfy water quality limits for wastewater reuse. Recently, Rizzo and his co-workers [1] published an excellent review that aims to suggest potential advanced treatment solutions, especially concerning the elimination of CECs and ARB & ARGs. They deeply assessed the performance of the best available technologies (BATs) for domestic wastewater treatment to decrease CECs and ARB & ARGs. Especially, they evaluated ozonation, activated carbon adsorption, chemical disinfection, UV radiation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and membrane filtration focusing on their capacity to efficiently eliminate CECs and ARB & ARGs, as well as their benefits and disadvantages. This work focuses on likely treatment trains involving the aforesaid BATs. As concluded by Rizzo et al. [1] a one advanced treatment technique is not enough to reduce the liberation of chemical CECs and ARB & ARGs and make wastewater reuse for crop irrigation safer; however, an impertinent integration of them and an appropriate controlling program would be needed. There is no miraculous BAT for treating wastewater for water reuse in agriculture. An appropriate combination of many techniques would be suggested following each case.
Should We Forbid the Consumption of Antibiotics to Stop the Spread of Resistances in Nature?  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106138
Abstract:
The appearance and diffusion of antibiotic resistance are at the moment seen as an inevitable characteristic of bacterial development succeeding the consumption of antibiotics. This spectacular event is completely clarified by the link present among the manifestation of resistances and the consumption of antibiotics. In terms of mechanisms, the augmenting appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) has been largely assigned to the selection of resistant variants that pre-exist in sensitive communities. Lately, Merlin [1] published an excellent review on the secondary influences of antibiotics at sub-inhibitory levels and trace metal elements, which obviously call attention to the reality that the antibiotic resistance danger has not to be related to the only antibiotic therapy applications, and must to some extent be viewed as a multifactorial issue where co-selection and stimulation of horizontal gene transfer as well completely applies. This work focuses on the main conclusions of Merlin [1] report. More in-depth epidemiological investigations have to let defining the range of these secondary impacts outside the scene of a Petri dish and may interpret why many antibiotic resistances run away any decrease of presence while lowering the corresponding antibiotic consumption. In addition, defining thoroughly which antibiotic molecules manifest secondary influences, and at which levels, would be a supplementary stage toward antibiotic hazard evaluation, whether for therapeutic applications or for the impact of antibiotics once liberated in the downstream mediums.
Advanced Oxidation Processes for Wastewater Treatment: Facts and Future Trends  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106139
Abstract:
Pollution provoked by antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria must be placed as a worldwide health and ecological worry. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are viewed as a greatly reasonable technique concerning water treatments for eliminating organic contaminants categorized as bio-recalcitrant and for the demobilization of pathogens, which are not touchable via traditional methods. This work discusses briefly the main recent facts and future trends in the field of applying AOPs in wastewater treatment. There is an urgent need for strengthening the studies on eliminating pollutants and microorganisms for wastewater reuse utilizing various AOPs. In-depth investigation about their reduction pathways employing AOPs is needed. Coupling AOPs with membrane processes should be kept in mind for better safety and pollutant removal.
Disinfection By-Products: Presence and Elimination in Drinking Water  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106140
Abstract:

The most frequently utilized technique for demobilizing pathogens remains disinfection. This is a fundamental stage in drinking water treatment as it removes the hazards related to water-borne diseases like typhoid and cholera. Therefore, disinfecting water employing chemical oxidants such as chlorine has been one of the main public health progresses through the previous century. During the time that this preserves the residual concentrations of disinfectant for the control of microbes, it may greatly elevate the generation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Lately, Chaukura et al. [1]?published an excellent review of the presence of organic matter (OM) in water sources and assessed its impact on the generation of DBPs. Especially, they discussed the production of DBPs, examined the contribution of OM on DBPs generation, and estimated and recommended techniques for eliminating DBPs. This work focuses on the main findings obtained by Chaukura et al. [1]?and explores the authors’ experience in dealing with disinfection processes and their DBPs generation issues as well as the techniques to remove them from water. Enhanced coagulation and membrane processes are efficacious in eliminating OM. An efficacious and economically usable procedure to dominate the production of DBPs in water treatment plants is to eliminate the precursors before they interact with chemical disinfectants, which should be avoided or at least reduced.

UV-C/H2O2 and Sunlight/H2O2 in the Core of the Best Available Technologies for Dealing with Present Dares in Domestic Wastewater Reuse  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106161
Abstract: Traditional urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTPs) are deficiently efficient in eliminating most contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), comprising antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARB & ARGs). Such pollutants lead to some worry for nature and human health. This work discusses the performance of the best available technologies (BATs) for dealing with urban wastewater (UWW) to eliminate CECs and ARB & ARGs. Ozonation, activated carbon adsorption, chemical disinfectants, UV radiation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) and membrane filtration are debated with a view to their potential to efficaciously reduce CECs and ARB & ARGs. Probable treatment trains involving the BATs are compared. In spite of the huge improvements acquired in terms of applying AOPs and understanding their mechanisms in removing ARB & ARGs, transformation products (TPs) of the antibiotics existing may be generated, which may be less bio-decomposable, more poisonous and biologically strong, juxtaposed to the parent compounds. Therefore, attempts have to be concentrated on defining the structure of such TPs and proving if these retain their core moieties, responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the antibiotic, probably comprising antimicrobial resistance to the surrounding microbes.
Mechanistic Insight into Disinfection Using Ferrate(VI)  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105946
Abstract:
Disinfection, chemical oxidation, and coagulation are key methods in water treatment. A chemical that may be used for all these targets is ferrate(VI). This work tries to bring some light into mechanisms implied throughout killing microbes using ferrate(VI). In acidic pH, the oxidation and reduction capacity of ferrate(VI) is superior to all currently utilized oxidizers and disinfectants in water and wastewater treatment. The technology of using ferrate(VI) for coagulation, chemical oxidation and disinfection of water and wastewater in a reactor simultaneously, can reduce the size of water and wastewater treatment plants and increase the treatment efficiency. Ferrate(VI) allows a novel emergency water treatment design for disaster-affected populations through the repercussions of natural disasters, through the concurrent and efficient elimination of microbial and chemical pollutants. The ferrates’ elevated performance and utilization as a green element for water treatment propose that these techniques remain greatly convenient for usage as pre- or post-treatment in traditional wastewater plants. It seems that there is no big difference in terms of ferrate’s action on pathogens with other chemical disinfectants. However, ferrate was found to be requiring lower needed doses as compared with other chemicals. More researches on disinfection by-products formation following ferrate injection as a disinfectant are required. Finally, ferrate(VI) deserves more attention to be used more largely through worldwide wastewater treatment plants.
Upgrading Wastewater Treatment Plant to Obtain Drinking Water  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105959
Abstract:
With a growing population and expansion, societies worldwide brave lack water for drinking supply. Undeveloped sources of water should be specified to diminish such issues. Direct potable reuse is a supply-side procedure that can enhance the sustainability and reliability of water supplies via recuperating potable water from wastewater. This work assesses the perspective of upgrading the wastewater treatment plants to obtain potable water. Treating wastewater at the highest level of purity to guarantee the drinking water supply is the best approach to avoid the pollution expansion from wastewater even if it is partially treated to minimize its toxic impacts and provide water for irrigation and industrial use purposes. Treating wastewater at present in the actual wastewater treatment plants should be urgently upgraded to provide potable water through adding processes steps such as nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, and adsorption on activated carbon. Evidently, there is an additional cost for these sophisticated techniques to pay for the better future of the humankind. Finally, from the authors’ point of view, treating wastewater must be continuously improved by using more and more developed techniques and consuming directly treated wastewater as potable water must be only considered as the final issue in the case of hard shortage situations for security reasons.
Water Reuse: Emerging Contaminants Elimination—Progress and Trends  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105981
Abstract:
This work concentrates on the review paper published by Ahmed et al. [1] which is dedicated to the elimination of emerging contaminants (ECs) using biological, chemical and hybrid techniques in effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Endocrine disruption chemicals (EDCs) are better reduced by a membrane bioreactor (MBR), activated sludge, and aeration processes between various biological processes. Surfactants, EDCs and personal care products (PCPs) may be well reduced using activated sludge processes. Pesticides and pharmaceuticals manifested convenient reduction performances by biological activated carbon. Microalgae treatment techniques may diminish nearly all sorts of ECs to a certain degree. Additional biological methods were observed less efficient in dealing with ECs. Chemical oxidation techniques (like ozonation/H2O2, UV photolysis/H2O2, and photo-Fenton) may greatly eliminate up to 100% of pesticides, beta-blockers, and pharmaceuticals; at the same time, EDCs may be better reduced via ozonation and UV photocatalysis. Fenton method was observed less efficient in treating any sorts of ECs. A merged setup founded on ozonation pursued by biological activated carbon was manifested hugely efficacious in eliminating pesticides, beta-blockers, and pharmaceuticals. An integrated ozonation-ultrasound device may eliminate until 100% of numerous pharmaceuticals. Next research orientations to boost the elimination of ECs have been suggested.
Electrochemical Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Dares and Trends  [PDF]
Djamel Ghernaout, Noureddine Elboughdiri
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106020
Abstract:
For treating wastewater, electrochemical engineering has been rediscovered during the last four decades through the world for its inherent advantages comparatively with traditional technologies especially the chemical and biological techniques. However, the expansion of this technology founded on electric current applying has been retarded by several technical-economic factors especially the detection of disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. This work focuses on the challenges and future tendencies for this highly-efficient technology to reach the full-scale implementations particularly in disinfecting water. Lately, new versions of electrochemical techniques have been suggested such as employing sulfate radical anion (SO4.-) and sunlight to generate .OH radicals in TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton water treatment. These improvements elevated the electrochemical engineering efficiency and acceptation. However, more efforts remain to be accomplished for water reuse vision. Future researches would focus on integrating membranes processes such as nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for a safe removal of DBPs.
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