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Developed Skills of Marketing Students through Direct Selling in Nueva Ecija  [PDF]
Kim Edward S. Santos
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106111
Abstract:
One of the course requirements in a business marketing curriculum is direct selling that serves as a gateway to the entrepreneurial world to students. The researcher used descriptive method. A total of 175 college students taking up marketing management from different colleges in Nueva Ecija were surveyed. The researcher used a Likert-scale type questionnaire and analyzed it through statistical data treatment such as mean and weighted mean. In light with the foregoing results, the researcher concluded that direct selling highly develops students’ marketing skills. On the contrary, the researcher suggests that the respondents improve their financial skills to be more effective and efficient in direct selling.
Prevalence of Bullying among LGBT Students in Nueva Ecija  [PDF]
Kim Edward S. Santos, Crisanto D. De Jesus
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106066
Abstract:
In general, school bullying, and LGBT student harassment in particular, have increasingly gained national attention as a serious issue that needs to be resolved. This paper described the types and forms of bullying that LGBT students have experienced in terms of: Verbal or Written, Physical, Relational or Social, and Cyber; the negative impacts of bullying LGBT students; and, the solution or suggestions of LGBT students to minimize bullying. The study used descriptive method and utilized Likert-scale type questionnaire. A total of 152 college students (90 from private schools and 62 from state universities and colleges) in Nueva Ecija were involved in this study. They were composed of 98 gays, 22 lesbians, and 32 self-confessed bisexuals. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that verbal/written bullying was the most prevalent type of bullying that LGBT students had experienced in their school. This is in the forms of persistent teasing, threatening, intimidating, and name calling. Likewise, bullying had caused negative impacts on them especially on the state of their emotions and feelings. They feel anxious, threatened, concealed feelings and unable to trust others. Other types of bullying (physical, social/relational, and cyber) were only sometimes experienced by the LGBT students but some of its forms were still occurred in their school like restraining, showing subtle but negative languages, and embarrassing and humiliating online. It was further concluded that the prevalence of bullying among LGBT students can be minimized through the help of those who are experiencing it with the help of their school community (parents, teachers, administrators and staff).
Organizational Condition of Private Schools and Colleges in Nueva Ecija  [PDF]
Kim Edward S. Santos, Carl Louie R. Nocum
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106112
Abstract:
Healthy organizations need to maximize human resources to achieve their goals; they need to integrate their programs and empower their employees. The study described the organizational condition of private schools and colleges in Nueva Ecija in terms of organizational structure, employer-employee relationship, and employee’s growth and development. The study used descriptive method and utilized survey research. A total of 114 employees (composed of 76 teaching and 38 non-teaching staff) from private schools and colleges in Nueva Ecija were involved in this study. Based on the gathered data and analysis of the results, the researchers concluded that the private schools and colleges of Nueva Ecija have demonstrated to be very satisfactory in their organizational condition. This was highlighted in the aspects of organizational structure and employee’s growth and development. This focuses on the commitment of all the members in achieving goals and objectives of their organizations, and at the same time giving opportunities to all the members to become productive according to distributed roles, and responsibilities, acknowledging one’s accomplishments, and group cohesiveness.
Job Burnout of Contractual Workers in Nueva Ecija  [PDF]
Kim Edward S. Santos, Crisanto D. De Jesus
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106113
Abstract:
Job burnout is an uncomfortable and unhealthy disorder that would like to improve for both individuals and organizations. Descriptive method and Pearson moment correlation were used in this research. A total of 89 contractual workers (that are 9 months up to 6 years in service) employed in the malls of Nueva Ecija were involved in this study. They were composed 50 males and 39 females whose ages range from 19 to 48 years old. Symptoms of Burnout were categorized into four such as physical, emotional exhaustion, reduced work performance, and work alienation from workmates. Based on the results of the study, the researchers concluded that physical and emotional exhaustion were the common symptoms that manifest when the contractual workers are burnout. Contractual workers have average degree level of burnout based on the combined four different symptoms such as physical, emotional exhaustion, reduced work performance, and alienation from workmates. Age of contractual workers can contribute to the higher tendency for them to experience physical and alienation from workmates as symptoms of burnout. Likewise, Years in service as contractual workers add to the higher possibility of experiencing emotional exhaustion and higher degree level of total burnout. In lieu of the foregoing conclusions, the researchers would like to recommend that an organization should implement self-care program for the contractual workers experiencing burnout. Furthermore, clear organization’s guidelines and policies are implemented to let contractual workers stay motivated to work even they are experiencing burnout.
Power Influence and Conflict Management of Ready-to-Wear (RTW) Store Supervisors  [PDF]
Kim Edward S. Santos, Mary Chris Austria-Cruz
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1106206
Abstract: Conflict awareness would enable managers to tackle the problems of operational performance, sustainability, and governance, more efficiently and effectively. This paper described the Ready-to-Wear (RTW) Store Supervisors’ personal power profile in terms of reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert; and described the conflict management styles, such as competing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding and accommodating. Further, this paper determined Sex Difference on the Personal Power Profile and Conflict Management Styles of RTW Store Supervisors. This paper used descriptive method of research. The researchers distributed survey questionnaires to a total of 79 (33 males and 46 females) RTW store supervisors in Nueva Ecija with likert-scale responses and analyzed it through statistical data treatment such as mean, standard deviation and t-test. Based on the result of the study, the researchers concluded that, first, RTW store supervisors mostly prefer referent power in influencing their staff they will feel valued and personally accepted. Second, store supervisor least prefers coercive power to influence others. Third, in terms of conflict management styles, collaborating is always used, and accommodating and compromising are sometimes used as strategies in conflict situations. Last, there is sex difference in terms personal power profile and conflict management styles where female RTW store supervisors report higher on some domains as compared to male RTW store supervisors. In lieu of the forgoing conclusions, the researchers recommend that RTW store supervisors should strengthen the personal power profiles that recognize the value, accept strong relationship, give benefits needed, and show example of commitment. These powers are referent, expert and reward. Conflict situations are normal in any business; thus RTW store supervisors should develop skills in managing conflicts. Collaborating, accommodating and compromising are conflict management styles that often give positive results. It is further recommended that regardless of sex difference, all store supervisors must have training to fully develop skills in managing conflicts.
Graphs of Transportation Polytopes
Jesús A. De Loera,Edward D. Kim,Shmuel Onn,Francisco Santos
Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.jcta.2009.03.010
Abstract: This paper discusses properties of the graphs of 2-way and 3-way transportation polytopes, in particular, their possible numbers of vertices and their diameters. Our main results include a quadratic bound on the diameter of axial 3-way transportation polytopes and a catalogue of non-degenerate transportation polytopes of small sizes. The catalogue disproves five conjectures about these polyhedra stated in the monograph by Yemelichev et al. (1984). It also allowed us to discover some new results. For example, we prove that the number of vertices of an $m\times n$ transportation polytope is a multiple of the greatest common divisor of $m$ and $n$.
An update on the Hirsch conjecture
Edward D. Kim,Francisco Santos
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1365/s13291-010-0001-8
Abstract: The Hirsch conjecture was posed in 1957 in a letter from Warren M. Hirsch to George Dantzig. It states that the graph of a d-dimensional polytope with n facets cannot have diameter greater than n - d. Despite being one of the most fundamental, basic and old problems in polytope theory, what we know is quite scarce. Most notably, no polynomial upper bound is known for the diameters that are conjectured to be linear. In contrast, very few polytopes are known where the bound $n-d$ is attained. This paper collects known results and remarks both on the positive and on the negative side of the conjecture. Some proofs are included, but only those that we hope are accessible to a general mathematical audience without introducing too many technicalities.
Companion to "An update on the Hirsch conjecture"
Edward D. Kim,Francisco Santos
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: This is an appendix to our paper "An update of the Hirsch Conjecture" (arXiv:0907.1186), containing proofs of some of the results and comments that were omitted in it.
Combinatorics and Geometry of Transportation Polytopes: An Update
Jesús A. De Loera,Edward D. Kim
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: A transportation polytope consists of all multidimensional arrays or tables of non-negative real numbers that satisfy certain sum conditions on subsets of the entries. They arise naturally in optimization and statistics, and also have interest for discrete mathematics because permutation matrices, latin squares, and magic squares appear naturally as lattice points of these polytopes. In this paper we survey advances on the understanding of the combinatorics and geometry of these polyhedra and include some recent unpublished results on the diameter of graphs of these polytopes. In particular, this is a thirty-year update on the status of a list of open questions last visited in the 1984 book by Yemelichev, Kovalev and Kravtsov and the 1986 survey paper of Vlach.
Optogenetic Mimicry of the Transient Activation of Dopamine Neurons by Natural Reward Is Sufficient for Operant Reinforcement
Kyung Man Kim, Michael V. Baratta, Aimei Yang, Doheon Lee, Edward S. Boyden, Christopher D. Fiorillo
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033612
Abstract: Activation of dopamine receptors in forebrain regions, for minutes or longer, is known to be sufficient for positive reinforcement of stimuli and actions. However, the firing rate of dopamine neurons is increased for only about 200 milliseconds following natural reward events that are better than expected, a response which has been described as a “reward prediction error” (RPE). Although RPE drives reinforcement learning (RL) in computational models, it has not been possible to directly test whether the transient dopamine signal actually drives RL. Here we have performed optical stimulation of genetically targeted ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in mice. We mimicked the transient activation of dopamine neurons that occurs in response to natural reward by applying a light pulse of 200 ms in VTA. When a single light pulse followed each self-initiated nose poke, it was sufficient in itself to cause operant reinforcement. Furthermore, when optical stimulation was delivered in separate sessions according to a predetermined pattern, it increased locomotion and contralateral rotations, behaviors that are known to result from activation of dopamine neurons. All three of the optically induced operant and locomotor behaviors were tightly correlated with the number of VTA dopamine neurons that expressed ChR2, providing additional evidence that the behavioral responses were caused by activation of dopamine neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the transient activation of dopamine neurons provides a functional reward signal that drives learning, in support of RL theories of dopamine function.
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